2018 Top Ten Science rumors
According to the reporter's understanding, the 20 "science" rumors of this year's release are based on Tencent's data. From the 74 "science" rumors published in 2018, experts judges voted according to their dissemination breadth and harmfulness. Everyone is concerned about the topic or is closely related to life. Among them, "acidic physique is the source of all diseases", "vaccines can be used without vaccination", "cleaning teeth are harmful to teeth", "home energy-saving lamps are carcinogenic and highly toxic", and also involve food safety and Air quality "coffee contains carcinogens to cause cancer", "low outdoor visibility is a scourge of heavy pollution"; there are misunderstandings on scientific research results "scientists found the largest new organs of the human body", "the universe wall for the universe "Boundary", there are also misleading topics on the hot topic "Northern 32 °C high temperature will lead to the extinction of polar bears", "Beidou map applies the Beidou satellite navigation system."
The following is the list of the top ten "science" rumors in 2018:
1. Proverbs: Acidic physique is the source of all diseases
People's physique is divided into acid and alkali, and acidic body constitution can lead to various diseases including cancer. If you want to not get sick, you must ensure the alkaline environment of your body. Women with acidic constitutions are prone to girls, and women with alkaline constitutions are prone to boys. By eating alkaline foods, taking alkaline supplements, and using alkaline therapy, you can change your body's acidity and alkalinity.
"Acid-base physique" itself is a pseudo-theory. Since the birth of this "theory" more than a decade ago, many scientists, doctors and science workers at home and abroad have always stressed that it is a scam. Regarding the acid-alkaline constitution, there is not even a decent document, or the simplest scientific research.
On November 2, 2018, Robert O. Young, founder of the American theory of acid-base physique, was sentenced in the court of San Diego to pay $105 million in cancer patients. He admitted in court that "acid-base physique" "It is a scam. It is not a microbiologist, a blood disease expert, a medical expert or a natural remedy. It does not have medical qualifications."
In fact, the human body is undergoing metabolism all the time. Many of the reactions are very sensitive to pH. The human body has a powerful and effective regulation system to keep the pH basically stable and only fluctuate within a small range. . In other words, people who eat any food will not change the pH of the human body, even if it is vinegar, it will not make people become more acidic. As for the "acidic physique and raw women's alkaline physique," it is even more nonsense.
Advocates of the theory of acid-base use the public's desire for health and fear of diseases such as cancer, and cherish the concept of pseudoscience. Some profit-seeking merchants use this theory to pack “healthy” coats for certain foods and sell them at a higher price. This is undoubtedly a warning to the general public. In addition to the "acid-base" theory, there are still various "magic" theories and therapies such as "fire health care" and "raw loach". It sounds strange, but the misguided public is not in the minority.
Science is empirical, and the correctness of scientific research depends on whether it can be supported by rigorous evidence and can be repeatedly verified. Although on the surface, the “acid-base theory” proponent seems to be able to justify by “grafting” some scientific terms, this theory has always lacked scientific evidence (such as experimental data) that can be re-validated, and there is a major scientific evidence. Defects, therefore, without the recognition of peer review and the support of the scientific community, can only be regarded as "pseudoscience", all the claims, products, and therapies built on them are untenable.
In real life, the reason why people always cite the success stories around them and defend these unreliable products and therapies is not that these people are lying, but the statistical "survivor bias" is playing magic, that is, People only see results after some sort of screening, ignoring key information. Specific to the spread of "pseudoscience", people only see individuals who are effective after receiving relevant therapies, but they do not realize that these are only very few data, and they cannot reflect the whole picture of things. In the face of any controversial event, if you do not use the correct scientific thinking, it is easy to fall into the trap of statistics.
2. Proverbs: Coffee contains carcinogens and can cause cancer
Coffee contains the carcinogenic chemical acrylamide, which can cause cancer.
When the food is subjected to high-temperature processing such as frying, baking and roasting, the color of the food is yellow or brown due to the reaction of reducing sugars (such as glucose, fructose, etc.) and amino acids in the food, and exudes an attractive aroma. This reaction is called the Maillard reaction. When the Maillard reaction occurs between the reducing sugar in the food and the amino acid called asparagine, there is acrylamide in the by-product, and the amount of the acrylamide is greatly affected by factors such as food raw materials and processing and cooking methods. When the heating process such as baking, frying, etc. exceeds 120 ° C, acrylamide is produced in the food, and the higher the temperature and the longer the heating time, the larger the amount produced.
At the end of March 2018, a court in Los Angeles decided that coffee products sold by several well-known coffee companies must be labeled with cancer warning labels to warn consumers that the coffee they sell contains acrylamide.
The reason why coffee is linked to cancer is inseparable from the identity of acrylamide's Class 2A carcinogen. According to the classification of the International Agency for Research on Cancer, acrylamide is classified as a Class 2A carcinogen. However, the meaning of Class 2A carcinogens is that there is a clear carcinogenic effect in animal experiments, but the results of population studies have not yet been determined. Although acrylamide can cause multiple organ tumors in rats, there is still a lack of epidemiological evidence that "the intake of acrylamide by food has a significant correlation with the occurrence of certain tumors in humans", so it is only potentially carcinogenic to humans. Sex.
According to the "Human Food and Chemical Toxicology" Journal published in 2010, "Human Estimation of Safe Dietary Consumption of Acrylamide", when the human body consumes 2.6 micrograms per kilogram of body weight per day, 16 micrograms of acrylamide, There is a risk of cancer.
According to this calculation, a coffee enthusiast weighing 55 kg had a daily acrylamide tolerance of 143 micrograms (55 x 2.6 = 143). A cup of 160 ml of black coffee with an average acrylamide content of 0.45 μg, he has to drink at least 318 cups of black coffee (143 ÷ 0.45 = 318) per day to risk carcinogenicity. Therefore, ordinary people drink a few cups of coffee a day, which is far from enough to achieve a carcinogenic dose.
In scientific research, there are two methods of qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis. The main task of qualitative analysis is to solve the problem of what constitutes matter. Quantitative analysis is suitable for analyzing indicators such as probability, frequency and degree of loss of dangerous losses.
In terms of toxicology, which is closely related to food safety, it is unscientific to talk about toxicity from dose. The toxicity of a substance must be discussed based on the dose used. Toxicity is not simply “toxic” or “non-toxic”, but has a major impact on health. High-temperature roasted coffee produces Class 2A carcinogen acrylamide, which also requires a dose limit that is safe for humans as long as it does not exceed the dose that is harmful to the body.
3. Proverbs: Vaccines can be vaccinated
The vaccine always has an accident, and all vaccines are not trustworthy. And the vaccine has no effect, and it doesn't matter if you don't vaccinate.
A vaccine is an autoimmune preparation for preventing infectious diseases by artificially attenuating, inactivating or genetically engineering a pathogenic microorganism (such as bacteria, rickettsia, virus, etc.) and its metabolites. So far, vaccines are the most powerful weapon against human infectious diseases.
Through vaccination, humans have eliminated smallpox, polio cases have decreased by 99%, infectious diseases such as diphtheria are rare, and the incidence of measles and neonatal tetanus has dropped significantly. At present, the reason why China can control diphtheria, whooping cough and neonatal tetanus is to rely on a very high vaccination rate.
The consequences of not vaccinating are serious. For example, newborns who are not vaccinated with hepatitis B may be infected with hepatitis B virus, while newborns are infected with hepatitis B virus, and more than 90% of them will develop chronic hepatitis B. If anti-viral treatment is not performed after hepatitis B, one-fourth of them will eventually develop into cirrhosis and liver cancer.
The effect of vaccination is obvious to all: before 1992, the proportion of hepatitis B virus carriers in the population under 15 years old was close to 10%, and it has dropped to about 3% after the planned immunization. It can be seen that the vaccine plays a major role in fighting disease, but because the vaccine is used to prevent disease rather than treat the disease, it does not produce the same effect as a drug.
In December 2014, a measles outbreak broke out in California, and nearly 100 people were diagnosed with measles. In fact, in 2000, the United States announced that it had "eliminated measles." In 2016, the famous American scientific journal JAMA published an article. Through analysis of numerous studies and reports, it was found that Americans who were not vaccinated or vaccinated were outbreaks of measles and some whooping cough. The incident accounts for a considerable proportion. This reflects a reduction in the vaccination rate caused by a decline in confidence in the vaccine, which may lead to a wider epidemic of infectious diseases and even outbreaks.
Admittedly, the outbreak of the problem vaccine event deserves our vigilance, but overall, vaccination is safe and the benefits of vaccination are much greater than the harm that may be caused by it. We can't quit vaccination because we are afraid of getting vaccinated with the problem vaccine. Only enough people can get vaccinated to form a broad and powerful defense.
Every time there is a problem with a vaccine incident, the "vaccination does not need to be vaccinated" paradox will be rampant. To make a scientific judgment, we must have statistical thinking. From the perspective of the individual, it is possible that the vaccination is ineffective or has side effects, but it cannot be inferred that "the vaccine is useless." Only by expanding the effectiveness of the vaccine to the population of the country and the world can we realize the significance of vaccination.
In fact, the safety and efficacy evaluation of any vaccine requires statisticians and disease control experts to obtain long-term, systematic research. It is not a scientific method of thinking that the vaccine is ineffective or unsafe and does not require vaccination based on individual cases.
In the face of all kinds of network rumors, we must cultivate the ability to think independently, and not to be clouded, in order to avoid being blinded by rumors and mistakes.
4. Proverbs: washing teeth is harmful to teeth
After washing your teeth, your gums will shrink faster, your teeth will become smaller and looser, and your teeth will become larger. So don't wash your teeth at will, it will wash your teeth.
First of all, we must correct a misunderstanding. The purpose of cleaning the teeth is not to whiten the teeth, but to remove the bacteria, calculus, pigments, etc. from the tooth surface.
There is no close adhesion between the gums and the root surface, but there is a shallow groove of 0.5-2 mm, called the sulcus. It is easy to accumulate food debris and attach plaque in the sulcus, which becomes a suitable area for bacterial growth and reproduction. These plaques continue to accumulate and become calculus over time. Dental calculus will "eat" the gums, causing inflammation and atrophy of the gums, eventually leading to tooth loss.
Dental calculus begins with a creamy white scale that hardens due to gradual calcification. In other words, the calculus is actually a hard-banging bacterium. They "help" us fill up the teeth, "fix" the teeth, and cover the exposed roots.
When we remove these calculus by washing the teeth, the roots are re-exposed and the teeth are more sensitive, so drinking hot water will feel sour. As the teeth become larger and the teeth are loose, it means that the teeth have problems. It is very likely that the gums have begun to shrink, not caused by washing teeth, but by periodontal disease itself. If the dental calculus is not removed in time, the situation will only get worse.
Oral health is the foundation of general health. The main purpose of dental cleaning is to prevent oral diseases, not treatment. Really understand the importance of oral health in the human body, conduct regular oral examinations, and actively take corrective measures to truly have a healthy oral environment.
It does not mean causality, and mistakenly regards the relationship as a causal relationship. It is a kind of thinking mistake that we often make. Because of the washing of the teeth, "the gums shrink faster, the teeth become smaller, looser, and the teeth become larger." It is typical to regard the relationship as a causal relationship.
In fact, the causal relationship between things is often not necessarily manifested on the surface, but can be derived from rigorous analysis and reasoning.
The rumor of washing teeth also involves understanding the pros and cons of things. For example, under the current technical conditions, the process of washing teeth is often uncomfortable. After washing the teeth, the teeth will be more sensitive to cold and heat. This is the "disease" side, but the "profit" side of the teeth is to make the teeth more health. How to choose, it is very clear.
5. Rumors: Beidou map applies Beidou satellite navigation system
The Beidou Map App, which was launched in May 2018, uses the Beidou satellite navigation and positioning system developed by China itself, which can replace the GPS of the United States.
The Beidou map does not equal the Beidou satellite navigation system. Beidou Satellite Navigation System (BDS) is a global satellite navigation system developed by China. It is the world's four major navigation systems with the United States Global Positioning System (GPS), the Russian GLONASS (GLONASS) and the European Union Galileo System (GALILEO). Suppliers identified by the United Nations Satellite Navigation Committee. These systems are generally composed of satellites, ground stations and user terminals. They are responsible for providing position information such as longitude, latitude and altitude. They are the “big country heavy equipment” built by the state. Since the end of 2018, the Beidou system has expanded from regional to global and officially entered the global era.
Like Baidu, Gaode, and Google Maps, Beidou Maps is a map software that provides location-based value-added services, such as displaying locations, planning paths, and providing congestion. The core of this is the map, there are many ways to map, including remote sensing satellites, map observation vehicles, drone observations, user feedback and so on.
Therefore, the Beidou map does not necessarily mean that the map of the Beidou satellite navigation and positioning system must be used. Which satellite navigation system is used for mobile phone map positioning depends mainly on the hardware of the mobile phone, and which system can be used to locate which chip of the navigation positioning system is loaded in the mobile phone. If your mobile phone does not have the hardware to support the Beidou system, then you have downloaded the Beidou map app and it has nothing to do with the Beidou system.
This rumor is actually a hot spot in the "Beidou". The Beidou system is China's big country, and the "replacement of GPS" is closely related to national pride, causing its widespread spread.
Questioning is the core of the scientific spirit. For the "bright eye" news that is closely attached to the hotspot, it is even more important to maintain the spirit of questioning. Like facing this